The Situationist

Think you’ve got magical powers?

Posted by Emily Pronin on February 5, 2007

Baseball, they say, is America’s game. But have you been to the ballpark recently? It seems we care about much more than just curve balls, bunts, stolen bases, and errors. More or less everyone playing or watching the sport is also focused on hexes, curses, jinxes, and any sort of outcome-altering magic.

In 2003, Curt Schilling, Boston’s pitching ace, helped the Red Sox win their first World Series (as if you hadn’t heard) in 86 years. But Beantown fans saw the win as much more than just a single World Series. To them, Schilling helped to overcome the “curse of the Bambino,” which had so long prevented the team from re-establishing its erstwhile preeminence.

curt-schilling.JPGWas it Schilling’s split-finger fastball that made the difference? Or, perhaps, was it one if his many rituals? On his journeys between dugout and mound, Schilling would leap over the foul line; before delivering his first pitch, he would pull a necklace from under his shirt and peck its pendant; and he never began his warmup routine for night games until exactly 6:45 p.m.

It’s not just the players who believe in magic. Fans, who never even touch the ball, appear to do all they can to influence a game through similarly superstitious practices. The sign most flashed by Red Sox fans that October, said simply “We Believe.” “Believe in what?” you might ask. It’s hard to say exactly, but the signs seemed to be a public profession of faith in magic, miracles, destiny, and an ability through collective will to reverse the curse.

The documentaries made about the curse-ending Series, treated the season as a miracle – a long-overdue reward for fans keeping the

Begins to make one wonder. What, really, is America’s pastime? Is it baseball? Or is it voodoo? Ok, it’s probably baseball. But at least one fan I know of combined the two: She made a voodoo doll of the opposing team’s coach and stuck pins in it before a critical tournament match-up. She still speaks with pride about the fact that her team won that night. Although few of us are sticking pins into dolls, there is growing evidence that our faith in things magical and our efforts to create magic are far more common and central to our daily lives than most of us would acknowledge.

Experiments that I’ve been conducting with Daniel Wegner, Sylvia Rodriguez, and Kimberly McCarthy have shown that people sometimes claim magical powers—personal responsibility for events they couldn’t possibly have controlled.

While most people would report believing that thoughts alone cannot cause external events, in these experiments people claimed responsibility for events that they had only willed to occur. For example, one experiment gauged whether people thought they had harmed another person when they stuck pins in a voodoo doll named after that person. Subjects in the experiment believed in the power of their voodoo hexes, but only if they had first generated evil thoughts about their victim.

Doll Used in ExperimentFor the voodoo experiment, subjects were led to think evil thoughts about another person who they believed was also a subject in the experiment (but who actually worked for the researchers). In a control condition, they were not led to think such thoughts. Each subject then stuck pins in a voodoo doll representing the alleged victim, who was seated at the table across from them. When the “victim” then faked having a headache, those who had harbored evil thoughts were more likely than their peers in a control condition to believe they had caused it.

In addition to experiments with voodoo hexes, we’ve also studied fans watching sports. In one study, subjects watched as a player shot baskets. Spectators were more likely to perceive that they had caused his success if they had first been asked to visualize his success (“Imagine the ball falling through the hoop”).

In another experiment conducted at a live basketball game (Princeton vs. Harvard), princeton-hoops.JPGsome spectators were given a task before the start of the game to think about how each of the starting players could contribute to it. Other audience members were not given this assignment (they instead were led to think about the players’ appearances). At halftime, those who had thought about the players’ potential contributions to the game reported having had more of an impact on the game than those in the control condition. In another study, people watching the NFL Super Bowl on television felt more responsible for that game’s outcome the more they thought about the game while watching it. Never mind that all of them had watched the game in front of a television at the campus student center.

Why would that be? Maybe the better question is, why not? Although the perception of mental power is (probably) without rational basis, the illusion of magic is comforting and, perhaps, adaptive. Belief in magic gives us hope, causal explanations, and the illusion of control – all of which we tend to crave – at times when any of those things might be hard to come by. Fears can be assuaged, threats can be tamed, stress can be eased, physical constraints can be transcended, and smoldering embers of hope can be rekindled when magic is possible.

Perhaps that partially explains why, assuming the folk wisdom is correct, individuals seem most likely to seek out magic in situations where they feel they have the least control over outcomes and where they face particularly salient threats. Research conducted in the labs of Daniel Gilbert (at Harvard) and Giora Keinan (at Tel Aviv University) suggest that it is at death’s door, or in times of extreme stress and danger, when many atheists find religion.


And, as reported in a recent CNN story, soldiers on the field of battle cling tightly to good luck charms. The video report from Iraq provides compelling and touching evidence of the powerful need we all may have – soldier, journalist, and viewer alike – to believe in magic.

Although our research focuses on the role of magic in our causal attributions, our findings may have implications for explaining many attributions of causation, responsibility, and blame, even when magic is not involved. They may help explain, for example, why “intent” is so often critical in law when rights and penalties are assessed. Perhaps that is one reason why a defendant’s thoughts prior to killing someone determine whether the killing was a murder in the first degree or something less. Take the same actions and add malicious premeditation, and the actor is considered far more blameworthy – that was true in our studies, and it’s true in the law. Maybe there is a connection.

Our article, titled “Everyday Magical Powers: The Role of Apparent Mental Causation in the Overestimation of Personal Influence,” appears in the August issue of the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. (For a recent New York Times article summarizing that research and other interesting work on the sources and ubiquity of magical thinking, click here .)

15 Responses to “Think you’ve got magical powers?”

  1. […] You Know All Those Times You Wouldn’t Shower ’til the Jayhawks Lost? It Totally Worked Sorta. […]

  2. hbdinwid said

    Great article but the Red Sox won in it 2004. And it was because of my hat being in the right position on my head cosmically in Game 6 of the ALCS at Yankee Stadium that allowed Schilling to win. I never moved it or touched it after the 2nd inning and they won. It had to be the hat.

  3. AU said

    As an avid sports fan, I love to believe that I have some sort of influence over what is happening on the field or court. As you wrote, it does in fact make me feel hope for my team, and lets me believe that I in some way contribute to the game. However, common sense tells me that none of my efforts to cross my fingers in just the right way will actually make a difference. Despite all of this, I still think that my wishful thinking helps—in a very indirect yet significant way. I am a competitive cheerleader, and I know that it feels different to walk into a venue full of teams rooting against you, versus a venue full of your supportive friends. I know that even a stranger who supports you can make a difference as to how you perform, and that their energy and encouraging aura help with the mental part of the game immensely. So in regards to your live basketball game study with Mr. Wegner, Ms. Rodriguez, and Ms. McCarthy, I do not completely agree with your assumption that fans may not have influence on the game, simply because the mere support of the fans can mean a lot to a player. Could it be that fans believe they have some control over the game because they actually affect the players’ psyches? I wonder if you had already taken this into consideration, and if so, how did you account for this factor?

  4. […] out in the first round. Regardless, no one can say that these fans didn’t do their part to will their teams to victory — blind faith, unlimited allegiance, and some fluorescent body paint, such is the stuff of […]

  5. christina said

    i think i’ve got magical powers to make things move and when we stop they stop!!! Let me decribe it for you…

    It’s creeapy and cool and weird!!!

  6. […] research with Daniel Wegner, Sylvia Rodriguez, and Kimberly McCarthy on how people sometimes claim magical powers—and thus personal responsibility—for events that they couldn’t possibly have controlled. This […]

  7. […] to review what has happened to Ortiz over the last several years. Those have been (to borrow a phrase from fellow Situationist contributor Emily Pronin) magical […]

  8. gmanedit said

    “Research conducted in the labs of Daniel Gilbert (at Harvard) and Giora Keinan (at Tel Aviv University) suggest that it is at death’s door, or in times of extreme stress and danger, when many atheists find religion.”

    Any direct links to support “many atheists find religion”?

  9. JJ said

    Speaking of religion, how can we overlook the predominant magical thinking in modern sports at every level: all that praying?

  10. Darkhoarse said

    Good article, but just for the sake of it, and being a loyal Yankee fan, the Red Sox didn’t win the World Series in 2003, they won it in 2004. The yanks beat them in stunning fashion, in extra innings with Aaron Boone’s walk off home run, in game 7 of the ALCS in 2003. The Florida Marlins beat the Yankees to win the championship in 2003. Sorry, but I just couldn’t let that slip.

  11. Alex said

    I may be a bit late with my response (more than a year!), but I’d like to comment anyway. Also, I only just found this site, so I have no idea if what I’m going to say has already been said, said better or dismissed as kinda stupid.

    I’ll start with a quote that seems relevant:
    “Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic.” – Arthur C. Clarke

    I think this willingness to believe in ‘magic’ is certainly not limited to sports, or to dead giveaways like voodoo dolls. It seems to me that a human’s willingness to connect any cause with any effect, however illogical, when suggested by observation, is actually a deeper instinct than the need for logical explanations. In fact, an infant only learns about cause and effect through observation. When a baby moves certain muscles, and then sees its arm move as a result (‘as a result’ is only the conclusion we attach to the observation), it is presented with a connection between its internal processes and its influence on the outside world, i.e. what is observed. When this happens repeatedly, the child learns that the two are connected. After many years of learning through observation and experimentation, a person reaches a state where he or she has a workable understanding of the world, a theory or model (or several) that allows you to think critically about whether something is actually causing something else, or it just seems that way but is actually a coincidence.

    However, we never stop learning. And we never stop observing, and using those observations to refine our idea of reality. If I clap my hands, and lightning strikes, I know it’s a coincidence. If it happens again, I’ll be surprised, and a bit confused. If it happens fifty times in three days, I know something’s up. And I will certainly avoid clapping my hands when standing on top of a high building.

    In conclusion, I believe that although logic and theories are all very fine and often useful, observation will always take precedence. I also believe that the fact that the universe makes sense to us and continues to make sense, is partly just luck. If at noon tomorrow, gravity decides to stop working, or cause and effect are no longer connected, there is no complaints department that will reinstate them for us just because they are ‘logical’, or because we have any kind of right to a world that makes sense. All we have is the experience that things have always worked a certain way, and the assumption that they will continue to do so. Frankly, that is indistinguishable from magic.

  12. […] Irish: Celtics Fans and Affective Forecasting,” “Red Sox Magic,” “March Madness,” and “Think you’ve got magical powers?.” For posts discussing the motive to justify the system, see “Ideology Shaping Situation of […]

  13. […] To read other Situationist posts by Emily Pronin or about her work, see “I’m Objective, You’re Biased,”  “Naive Cynicism – Abstract,” “The Magic of Jonathan Papelbon’s ‘Knuckle Knock,’” “Red Sox Magic,” and “Think You’ve Got Magical Powers?“ […]

  14. […] Think you’ve got magical powers? (by Emily Pronin) […]

  15. […] research on sports fans, has a thought-provoking post up on The Situationist entitled “Think You’ve Got Magical Powers?” The post details her research on how many athletes and sports fans believe that they can […]

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