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Table of Contents

Posted by The Situationist Staff on March 12, 2011

Behavioral Sciences & the Law, Volume 29, Issue 1 (January/February 2011)

Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Research Articles

Life and death in the lone star state: Three decades of violence predictions by capital juries, Mark D. Cunningham, Jon R. Sorensen, Mark P. Vigen, S.O. Woods

In search of the psychopathic sexuality taxon: Indicator size does matter, Glenn D. Walters Ph.D., David K. Marcus Ph.D., John F. Edens Ph.D., Raymond A. Knight Ph.D., Glenn M. Sanford Ph.D.

Measuring knowledge of the insanity defense: Scale construction and validation, Tarika Daftary-Kapur Ph.D., Jennifer L. Groscup Ph.D., Maureen O’Connor Ph.D., Frank Coffaro M.A., Michele Galietta Ph.D.

Stalkers and harassers of British Royalty: an exploration of proxy behaviours for violence, David V. James et al

Critical elements of the crisis intervention team model of jail diversion: An expert survey, Alan B. McGuire Ph.D., Gary R. Bond Ph.D.

Exploring separable components of institutional confidence, Joseph A. Hamm B.A. et al

Judging intoxication, Steve Rubenzer Ph.D.

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Applied Cognitive Psychology – February 2011

Posted by The Situationist Staff on March 1, 2011

Applied Cognitive Psychology, Volume 25, Issue 1 (January/February 2011)

© John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Research Articles

Positive and negative effects of physical context reinstatement on eyewitness recall and identification, Carol K. Wong, J. Don Read

Interactive elements for dynamically linked multiple representations in computer simulation, Günter Daniel Rey

Accuracy and perspective in involuntary autobiographical memory, John H. Mace, Elizabeth Atkinson, Christopher H. Moeckel, Varinia Torres

Typicality effects on memory for voice: Implications for earwitness testimony, J. W. Mullennix, A. Ross, C. Smith, K. Kuykendall, J. Conard, S. Barb

Remembering why: Can people consistently recall reasons for their behaviour? Suzanne O. Kaasa, Erin K. Morris, Elizabeth F. Loftus

Combating Co-witness contamination: Attempting to decrease the negative effects of discussion on eyewitness memory, Helen M. Paterson, Richard I. Kemp, Jodie R. Ng

Effect of viewing the interview and identification process on juror perceptions of eyewitness accuracy, Margaret C. Reardon, Ronald P. Fisher

Photograph-induced memory errors: When photographs make people claim they have done things they have not, Linda A. Henkel

Are people always more risk averse after disasters? Surveys after a heavy snow-hit and a major earthquake in China in 2008Jin-Zhen Li, Shu Li, Wen-Zhong Wang, Li-Lin Rao, Huan Liu

Interference in eyewitness and earwitness recognition, Sarah V Stevenage, Amy Howland, Anna Tippelt

Children’s memory for the times of events from the past years, William J. Friedman, Elaine Reese, Xin Dai

Book Review

An introduction to the cognitive theory of multimedia learning, Kathy Robinson

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Journal of Applied Social Psychology (February)

Posted by The Situationist Staff on February 26, 2011

Journal of Applied Social Psychology, Volume 41, Issue 2 (February 2011)

© Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Original Articles

Gender Versus Gender Role in Attributions of Blame for a Sexual Assault, Arnold S. Kahn, Kimberly A. Rodgers, Charley Martin, Kiah Malick, Jamie Claytor, Maria Gandolfo, Rebecca Seay, Jacklyn R. McMillan and Ellen Webne

Reviewers and the Detection of Deceptive Information in Recorded Interviews, Gabriel Giordano, Joey George, Kent Marett and Brian Keane

Self-Presentational Cognitions for Exercise in Female Adolescents, Jennifer Cumming and Cecilie Thøgersen-Ntoumani

Role of Political Skill in Job Performance Prediction Beyond General Mental Ability and Personality in Cross-Sectional and Predictive Studies, Gerhard Blickle, Jochen Kramer, Paula B. Schneider, James A. Meurs, Gerald R. Ferris, Jan Mierke, Alexander H. Witzki and Tassilo D. Momm

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Economic Journal Watch – Table of Contents

Posted by The Situationist Staff on May 8, 2008

The latest issue of Economic Journal Watch includes several pieces of interest to Situationist readers:

Table of Contents with links to articles (pdf)

Download and Print Entire May 2008 Issue (134 pages, 1.8 MB)

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The Situation of Race in America

Posted by The Situationist Staff on April 22, 2008

Malcolm X Image by spcoon - FlickrThe New York Times has a webpage devoted to a series of reports examining “How Race Is Lived in America.” Below we provide the webpage’s general description, followed by the title (with links) and authors of the specific reports.

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“Two generations after the end of legal discrimination, race still ignites political debates — over Civil War flags, for example, or police profiling. But the wider public discussion of race relations seems muted by a full-employment economy and by a sense, particularly among many whites, that the time of large social remedies is past. Race relations are being defined less by political action than by daily experience, in schools, in sports arenas, in pop culture and at worship, and especially in the workplace. These encounters — race relations in the most literal, everyday sense — make up this series of reports, the outcome of a yearlong examination by a team of Times reporters.”

Shared Prayers, Mixed Blessings: Integration Saved a Church. Then the Hard Work Began by Kevin Sack

Best of Friends, Worlds Apart: Joel Ruiz Is Black. Achmed Valdés Is White. In America They Discovered It Matters by Mirta Ojito

Which Man’s Army: The Military Says It’s Colorblind. Tell That to These Drill Sergeants by Steven A. Holmes

Who Gets to Tell a Black Story?: A White Journalist Wrote It. A Black Director Fought to Own It by Janny Scott

A Limited Partnership: The Black Internet Entrepreneur Had the Idea; The White One Became the Venture’s Public Face by Amy Harmon

At a Slaughterhouse, Some Things Never Die: Who Kills, Who Cuts, Who Bosses Can Depend on Race by Charlie LeDuff

When to Campaign With Color: An Asian-American Told His Story to Whites and Won. For Black Politicians, It’s a Riskier Strategy by Timothy Egan

Reaping What Was Sown on the Old Plantation: A Landowner Tells Her Family’s Truth. A Park Ranger Wants a Broader Truth by Ginger Thompson

Growing Up, Growing Apart: Fast Friends Try to Resist the Pressure to Divide by Race by Tamar Lewin

The Hurt Between the Lines: A Newsroom Divides After a Healing Series on Race by Dana Canedy

The Minority Quarterback: Coaches Chose a White to Call the Plays. The Campus Found That Hard to Swallow by Ira Berkow

Guarding the Borders of the Hip-Hop Nation: In the ‘Hood and in the Burbz, White Money Feeds Rap. True Believers Fear Selling Out by N.R. Kleinfield

Why Harlem Drug Cops Don’t Discuss Race: Color Can Give Anonymity Undercover. But Looking Like a Suspect Has Its Risks by Michael Winerip

Bricks, Mortar and Coalition Building: Houston Is Nearly Equal Parts Black, Hispanic and Anglo. For 3 Contractors, That Means Working Together by Mireya Navarro

Getting Under My Skin: A White Mother and a Black Father Left Him This Legacy: The Struggle to Be an Integrated Man in a Segregated World by Don Terry

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Journal of Personality & Social Psychology – Articles of Interest

Posted by The Situationist Staff on February 27, 2008

Journal of Personality & Social Psychology CoverJournal of Personality & Social Psychology CoverJournal of Personality and Social Psychology

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Volume 94, Issue 2

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Sex differences in mate preferences revisited: Do people know what they initially desire in a romantic partner?

In paradigms in which participants state their ideal romantic-partner preferences or examine vignettes and photographs, men value physical attractiveness more than women do, and women value earning prospects more than men do. Yet it remains unclear if these preferences remain sex differentiated in predicting desire for real-life potential partners (i.e., individuals whom one has actually met). In the present study, the authors explored this possibility using speed dating and longitudinal follow-up procedures. Replicating previous research, participants exhibited traditional sex differences when stating the importance of physical attractiveness and earning prospects in an ideal partner and ideal speed date. However, data revealed no sex differences in the associations between participants’ romantic interest in real-life potential partners (met during and outside of speed dating) and the attractiveness and earning prospects of those partners. Furthermore, participants’ ideal preferences, assessed before the speed-dating event, failed to predict what inspired their actual desire at the event. Results are discussed within the context of R. E. Nisbett and T. D. Wilson’s (1977) seminal article: Even regarding such a consequential aspect of mental life as romantic-partner preferences, people may lack introspective awareness of what influences their judgments and behavior.

Expect the unexpected: Failure to anticipate similarities leads to an intergroup forecasting error.

People often expect interactions with outgroup members to go poorly, but little research examines the accuracy of these expectations, reasons why expectations might be negatively biased, and ways to bring expectations in line with experiences. The authors found that intergroup interactions were more positive than people expected them to be (Pilot Study, Study 1). One reason for this intergroup forecasting error is that people focus on their dissimilarities with outgroup members (Study 1). When the authors focused White participants’ attention on the ways they were similar to a Black participant, their intergroup expectations changed to match their positive experiences (Studies 2 & 3). Regardless of focus, Whites expected to have pleasant intragroup interactions, and they were accurate (Study 4). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved)

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How attributional ambiguity shapes physiological and emotional responses to social rejection and acceptance.

The authors examined White and Black participants’ emotional, physiological, and behavioral responses to same-race or different-race evaluators, following rejecting social feedback or accepting social feedback. As expected, in ingroup interactions, the authors observed deleterious responses to social rejection and benign responses to social acceptance. Deleterious responses included cardiovascular (CV) reactivity consistent with threat states and poorer performance, whereas benign responses included CV reactivity consistent with challenge states and better performance. In intergroup interactions, however, a more complex pattern of responses emerged. Social rejection from different-race evaluators engendered more anger and activational responses, regardless of participants’ race. In contrast, social acceptance produced an asymmetrical race pattern–White participants responded more positively than did Black participants. The latter appeared vigilant and exhibited threat responses. Discussion centers on implications for attributional ambiguity theory and potential pathways from discrimination to health outcomes.

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Not yet human: Implicit knowledge, historical dehumanization, and contemporary consequences.

Historical representations explicitly depicting Blacks as apelike have largely disappeared in the United States, yet a mental association between Blacks and apes remains. Here, the authors demonstrate that U.S. citizens implicitly associate Blacks and apes. In a series of laboratory studies, the authors reveal how this association influences study participants’ basic cognitive processes and significantly alters their judgments in criminal justice contexts. Specifically, this Black-ape association alters visual perception and attention, and it increases endorsement of violence against Black suspects. In an archival study of actual criminal cases, the authors show that news articles written about Blacks who are convicted of capital crimes are more likely to contain ape-relevant language than news articles written about White convicts. Moreover, those who are implicitly portrayed as more apelike in these articles are more likely to be executed by the state than those who are not. The authors argue that examining the subtle persistence of specific historical representations such as these may not only enhance contemporary research on dehumanization, stereotyping, and implicit processes but also highlight common forms of discrimination that previously have gone unrecognized.

Go to Journal’s full Table of Contents

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Blinking on the Bench

Posted by The Situationist Staff on February 24, 2008

Scales of JusticeChris Guthrie, Jeff Rachlinski, & Andrew Wistrich have an interesting new paper, “Blinking on the Bench: How Judges Decide Cases.” Here is the abstract:

How do judges judge? Do they apply law to facts in a mechanical and deliberative way, as the formalists suggest they do, or do they rely on hunches and gut feelings, as the realists maintain? Debate has raged for decades, but researchers have offered little hard evidence in support of either model. Relying on empirical studies of judicial reasoning and decision making, we propose an entirely new model of judging that provides a more accurate explanation of judicial behavior. Our model accounts for the tendency of the human brain to make automatic, snap judgments, which are surprisingly accurate, but which can also lead to erroneous decisions. Equipped with a better understanding of judging, we then propose several reforms that should lead to more just and accurate outcomes.

The paper is available on SSRN. For some blogging on the paper, check out the posts on and Legal Blog Watch.

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Perspectives on Psychological Science – Articles of Interest

Posted by The Situationist Staff on February 20, 2008

Perspectives on Psychological Science CoverPerspectives on Psychological Science CoverPerspectives on Psychological Science

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Introduction: From Philosophical Thinking to Psychological Empiricism – Page 1

By Constantine Sedikides: “The authors of [the articles in this issue] received a rather tall order. They were requested to (a) identify an important, broad, and vibrant topic in their area of expertise; (b) trace historically the foundations of this topic to philosophers (and, if needed, to thinkers in other fields such as sociology, politics, or economics); (c) cover briefly how knowledge on this topic progressed to the present; (d) provide an overview of psychology’s contribution by explaining how psychology has framed ideas about this topic and how empirical research has provided answers; and (e) identify new questions for this topic and highlight how psychological research is likely to shape them new questions.”

Free Will in Scientific Psychology – Pages 14 -19

By Roy F. Baumeister: ABSTRACT—Some actions are freer than others, and the difference is palpably important in terms of inner process, subjective perception, and social consequences. Psychology can study the difference between freer and less free actions without making dubious metaphysical commitments. Human evolution seems to have created a relatively new, more complex form of action control that corresponds to popular notions of free will. It is marked by self-control and rational choice, both of which are highly adaptive, especially for functioning within culture. The processes that create these forms of free will may be biologically costly and therefore are only used occasionally, so that people are likely to remain only incompletely self-disciplined, virtuous, and rational.

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Why Heuristics Work – Pages 20 – 29

By Gerd Gigerenzer: ABSTRACT—The adaptive toolbox is a Darwinian-inspired theory that conceives of the mind as a modular system that is composed of heuristics, their building blocks, and evolved capacities. The study of the adaptive toolbox is descriptive and analyzes the selection and structure of heuristics in social and physical environments. The study of ecological rationality is prescriptive and identifies the structure of environments in which specific heuristics either succeed or fail. Results have been used for designing heuristics and environments to improve professional decision making in the real world.

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Language: A Toolbox for Sharing and Influencing Social Reality – Pages 38 -47

By Klaus Fiedler: ABSTRACT—The key role of language is often neglected in explicitly formulated theories of cognition, affect, and social behavior. Implicitly, though, the relationship between language and mind is at the heart of psychological science. Two major research programs—linguistic universals and linguistic relativity—originate in opposite philosophical positions, assuming either that language reflects the mind’s ideas and free will or that language differences govern and restrict the mind. However, modern psychological research was able to begin illuminating the power and richness of linguistic influences only after the priority debate was given up and language and cognition were treated as integral parts of the same process. Beyond the confines of referential communication, conceived as cooperative transfer of symbols referring to common world knowledge, some of the most intriguing phenomena are detached from referential bonds, reflecting unintended, emergent, or even random outcomes of verbal interaction. Indeed, the effectiveness of verbal priming may be actually contingent on language users’ failure to understand the primes’ referential meanings and implications.

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Understanding the Vital Human Quest for Self-Esteem – Pages 48 – 55

By Jeff Greenberg: ABSTRACT—Authors have long noted the human penchant for self-esteem. Experimental research has revealed that this desire for self-esteem has wide-ranging effects on cognition, emotion, and behavior. Terror management theory explains that this desire for self-esteem results from a fundamental need for psychological security, which is engendered by humans’ awareness of their own vulnerability and mortality. A large body of evidence has supported this explanation. Specifically, substantial lines of research have shown that self-esteem buffers anxiety and reduces defenses against death and that reminders of mortality increase efforts to defend and bolster self-esteem. Complementary findings have helped clarify the role of culture in self-esteem striving and the ways in which people can vary in their level, stability, and sources of self-esteem. I conclude by briefly considering how this contemporary knowledge regarding the quest for self-esteem informs current events and daily life.

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Morality – Pages 65 – 72

By Jonathan Haidt: ABSTRACT—Moral psychology is a rapidly growing field with two principle lineages. The main line began with Jean Piaget and includes developmental psychologists who have studied the acquisition of moral concepts and reasoning. The alternative line began in the 1990s with a new synthesis of evolutionary, neurological, and social-psychological research in which the central phenomena are moral emotions and intuitions. In this essay, I show how both of these lines have been shaped by an older debate between two 19th century narratives about modernity: one celebrating the liberation of individuals, the other mourning the loss of community and moral authority. I suggest that both lines of moral psychology have limited themselves to the moral domain prescribed by the liberation narrative, and so one future step for moral psychology should be to study alternative moral perspectives, particularly religious and politically conservative ones in which morality is, in part, about protecting groups, institutions, and souls.

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The Unconscious Mind – Pages 73 – 79

By [Situationist Contributor] John A. Bargh & Ezequiel Morsell: ABSTRACT—The unconscious mind is still viewed by many psychological scientists as the shadow of a “real” conscious mind, though there now exists substantial evidence that the unconscious is not identifiably less flexible, complex, controlling, deliberative, or action-oriented than is its counterpart. This “conscious-centric” bias is due in part to the operational definition within cognitive psychology that equates unconscious with subliminal. We review the evidence challenging this restricted view of the unconscious emerging from contemporary social cognition research, which has traditionally defined the unconscious in terms of its unintentional nature; this research has demonstrated the existence of several independent unconscious behavioral guidance systems: perceptual, evaluative, and motivational. From this perspective, it is concluded that in both phylogeny and ontogeny, actions of an unconscious mind precede the arrival of a conscious mind—that action precedes reflection.

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Love: What Is It, Why Does It Matter, and How Does It Operate? – Page 80 – 86

By Harry T. Reis, Arthur Aron: ABSTRACT—Love is a perennial topic of fascination for scholars and laypersons alike. Whereas psychological science was slow to develop active interest in love, the past few decades have seen considerable growth in research on the subject, to the point where a uniquely psychological perspective on love can be identified. This article describes some of the more central and well-established findings from psychologically informed research on love and its influence in adult human relationships. We discuss research on how love is defined, the significance of love for human activity and well-being, and evidence about the mechanisms by which love is believed to operate. We conclude by describing several key questions and potentially important new directions for the next wave of psychological science.

Go to Journal’s full Table of Contents

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