From Case Western Reserve University on Newswise:
Aggression in school-age children may have its origins in children 3 years old and younger who witnessed violence between their mothers and partners, according to a new Case Western Reserve University study.
“People may think children that young are passive and unaware, but they pay attention to what’s happening around them,” said Megan Holmes, assistant professor of social work at the Jack, Joseph and Morton Mandel School of Applied Social Sciences at Case Western Reserve in Cleveland.
Between three and 10 million children witness some form of domestic violence each year, according the National Center for Children Exposed to Violence.
Holmes said researchers know the impact of recent exposure to violence, but little information has been available about the long-term effect from the early years of life. To her knowledge, she said her study is the first to look at the effect of early exposure to domestic violence and its impact on the development of social behavior.
In the study, “The sleeper effect of intimate partner violence (IPV) exposure: long-term consequences on young children’s aggressive behavior,” Holmes analyzed the behavior of 107 children exposed to IPV in their first three years but never again after age 3. The outcomes of those children were compared to 339 children who were never exposed.
Those studied were from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW), which included children reported to Child Protective Services for abuse or neglect. The children’s behavior was followed four times over the course of 5 years.
Holmes’s research examined the timing, duration and nature of their exposure to violence and how it affected aggressive behavior.
Analyzing aggressive behaviors, Holmes saw no behavioral differences between those who did or did not witness violence between the ages of 3 and 5, but children exposed to violence increased their aggression when they reached school age. And the more frequently IPV was witnessed, the more aggressive the behaviors became.
Meanwhile, children never exposed to IPV gradually decreased in aggression.
Knowing about the delayed effect on children is important for social workers assessing the impact on children in homes with domestic violence, Holmes said.
“The delay also gives social workers a window of opportunity between ages 3 and 5 to help the children socialize and learn what is appropriate behavior,” said Holmes, who has worked with mothers and children in domestic violence shelters.
Interventions can include play and art therapies to help children work through the violence they were exposed to.
Holmes reported her findings in the spring issue of Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry.
Related Situationist posts:
- Adrian Raine on the Anatomy of Violence – SALMS Talk Today!
- Pinker on the Changing Situation of Violence
- Jim Sidanius “Terror, Intergroup Violence, and the Law,
- Steven Pinker Speaks at Harvard Law School
- Another Century of Genocide?,
- The Situation of Violence,
- The Neuro-Situation of Violence and Empathy,
- My Lai Massacre
- Situational Sources of the Holocaust
- Lessons Learned from the Abu Ghraib Horrors,
- The Bush Frame: Us vs. Them; Good vs. Evil; Intentions vs. Consequences,
- Why Torture? Because It Feels Good (at least to “Us”),
- 25 Million Years of Us vs. Them
- New Study Looks at the Roots of Empathy,
One series of posts was devoted to the situational sources of war.
- Part I and Part II of the series included portions of an article co-authored by Daniel Kahneman and Jonathan Renshon, titled “Why Hawks Win.”
- Part III reproduced an op-ed written by Situationist friend Dan Gilbert on July 24, 2006.
- Part IV and Part V in the series contained the two halves of an essay written by Situationist Contributor, Jon Hanson within the week following 9/11.
- Part VI contains an op-ed written by Situationist Contributor John Jost on October 1, 2001, “Legitimate Responses to Illegitimate Acts,” which gives special emphasis to the role of system justification.
- Part VII includes a video entitled “Resisting the Drums of War.” The film was created and narrated by psychologist Roy J. Eidelson, Executive Director of the Solomon Asch Center at the University of Pennsylvania.
To review a larger sample of posts on the causes and consequences of human conflict, click here.